Sleep problems are common in bipolar disorder. This study assessed sleep in patients with bipolar compared to healthy patients. It was found that patients with bipolar disorder had high rates of sleep problems, including insomnia, over-sleeping, obstructive sleep apnoea, and inconsistent patterns of going to sleep and waking up. Compared to patients with normal sleep, bipolar patients with abnormal sleep had abnormal melatonin levels, lower mood, and worse quality of life.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for depression but has many side effects, particularly memory problems. Some studies show that ketamine can rapidly improve mood in people with depression. This study explored whether ketamine may protect against memory problems from ECT. The results showed that ketamine made no difference to the beneficial effect of ECT on mood nor reduced the side effects.